Source 1

Collins, Patricia Hill. “Intersectionality’s Definitional Dilemmas.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 41, 2015, pp. 1-20.

The article is dedicated to the problem of intersectionality definition, historical background of its studying, and possible practical use of the theory. In the article, Collins highlighted the importance of intersectionality as a paradigm for social processes studying due to the fact that no category such as race, gender, sexuality, and abilities should be considered separately. They all together shape social inequalities and affect the level of social intolerance. Collins described the intersectionality as a field of study, provided the history of its development, and cited several basic works dedicated to this problem. The author underlined the role of racial formation theory for the intersectionality due to the fact that the latter was formed on the foundation of the racial inequality. The Black women feministic movement played an important role in the theory development because it is a bright example of intersectional (race and gender) discrimination. Finally, Collins demonstrated how separate racial, class, and gender discrimination studies had transformed into the theory of intersectionality. Nowadays, this theory is used as an analytic strategy in social processes of discrimination studying.

This article might be useful as an important background for further intersectionality investigation. First of all, it provided the definition of the term and explained its meaning. Second, the article presented the information about history of the theory. Thus, the problematics can be studied from the retrospective point of view. Finally, there was also given the possible practical application of the theory of intersectionality. Therefore, Intersectionality’s Definitional Dilemmas can be used as a background for further investigation of different types of discrimination and its connection to eating disorders. The article demonstrated common principles of the intersectionality development and its influence on people of different minority groups. Based on these principles, further investigation of the problem in terms of eating disorders can be conducted.

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Source 2

Thompson, Becky Wangsgaard. A Way Outa No Way: Eating Problems among African-American, Latina, and White Women.” Gender and Society, vol. 6, no.4, 1992, pp. 546-561.

In the article, Thompson investigated the problem of various eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, binging, and dieting among African American, Latina, and white women. There was conducted the analysis of the influence of race, social class, sexuality, and economical status on the development of eating disorder. It was shown that eating disorder, which was earlier connected just with gender, might appear as a result of various types of women discrimination: racism, sexism, heterosexism, classism as well as a result of sexual abuse and low income. In the article, the author provided historical background of investigation of the problem of eating disorder among women of different races, nationalities, and sexuality and highlighted the lack of researches dedicated to possible connection between the studied disorders and social inequality and discrimination. The research was based on the interview of 18 women of different races. The article determined the connection between eating disorders of these women and sexual abuse, poverty, racism, and heterosexism.

This article is a valuable source of information for further investigations of eating disorders connected with intersectionality. A Way Outa No Way is one of the first works that consider the problem of eating disorders in terms of race, class, and sexuality discrimination. Before this investigation, eating disorders were studied among middle and high-class white women. Thus, the article of Thompson laid the foundation for further studying of discrimination as the possible cause of various eating disorders. The research for the first time demonstrated the significant role that different types of discrimination played in eating disorder development. Besides, this research is an example of a thorough intersectional discrimination research due to the fact that different social categories were considered. However, the investigation was based on rather small sampling. Thus, it can be stated that it is important to continue such researches with larger sampling to confirm and specify the obtained data.

Source 3

Austin, S. Bryn, et al. “Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obesity at the Intersections of Gender, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in US High School Students.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 2, 2013, pp. e16?e22.

The authors conducted their investigation among American high school students of different ethnicities and sexes. The purpose of the research was to analyze the connection of racial and sexual orientation identity and different eating disorders such as obesity, weight controlling, and dieting. The research was based on the survey. Totally, 24,591 students were involved in the investigation who belonged to different genders, ethnicities, and sexual orientation groups. The survey was anonymous. As a result of the research, there was identified a strong correlation between sexual orientation and eating disorder for both girls and boys of all investigated ethnicities. Due to the large sampling, it was possible to use statistical methods to analyze data. This analysis confirmed the obtained results. In conclusion, the authors postulated that efficient interventions needed to be developed to prevent eating disorders among LGB young people. It was stated that LGB youth were suffering from discrimination, which might result in eating disorders.

This investigation is very important and might be used for further project development. First of all, the research provided the information on eating disorders development among high school students in the United States. It is known that teenagers and young adults are the most vulnerable category of people suffering from discrimination. This research presented the detailed information about the connection between sexual orientation and eating disorders. Also, the investigation might be considered as intersectional because young people of different ethnicities were involved. Besides, both boys and girls participated in the survey. Currently, mostly women are involved in the studies dedicated to eating disorders while it is possible to suppose that men also face such problems. Finally, the research provided a detailed description of appropriate methodology of social investigation. This methodology (large sampling, anonymous survey, and statistical approaches for data analyzing) might be adopted and repeated for another research with other social groups and studied disorders.

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Source 4

Watson, Ryan J., et al. “Trends and Disparities in Disordered Eating among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents.” International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol. 50, no. 1, 2017, pp. 22-31.

This investigation was dedicated to the problem of eating disorder and its connection to heterosexuality and sexual minority. The hypothesis of the study was that LGB young people are suffering from eating disorder more frequently in comparison to heterosexual people. The data from the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (1999-2013) were used in the study. Totally, 26,002 questionnaires were analyzed. Regression statistical analysis was used in the research. Two significant results were obtained. First, the authors postulated that the numbers of eating disorder were decreasing in time which was a good sign. Second, it was determined that eating disorders were more widely spread among homosexual young people as compared to heterosexual youth. In the authors opinion, this investigation highlighted the importance of developing the interventions which might decrease the level of eating disorders among LGB people.

This article is dedicated to the influence of sexuality and sexual discrimination on the eating disorders development among adults. Sexual discrimination is considered to be one of the most widespread and severe in the world. People who face social intolerance are suffering from the pressure and psychological problems. It might result in various mental disorders, in particular, eating disorders. This investigation provided information about such connection. It might be the basis for further researches. Even though it was estimated that sexuality and heterosexism might result in eating disorders, the problem was not considered from the point f view of intersectional theory. It might be the next step: to review the obtained information and analyze it in relation to other researches that considered eating disorder as a result of racial and gender discrimination. Besides, it is important to mention using large surveys in the research. This methodology might be adapted to another survey-based investigation which might also include the analysis of racial, gender, and class factors to describe the whole picture of eating disorders development.

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